News

Not using Referential Integrity – An SQL Smell!

Not Using Referential Integrity - SQL Smell?
Not Using Referential Integrity – SQL Smell?

In his article on SQL Smells, Phil Factor describes identifies two “smells” associated with Constraints in SQL. He regards not using Referential Integrity as an SQL Smell.

In this post I will explain what a Constraint is, and how one kind of Constraint provides Referential Integrity.

What are CONSTRAINTs and what do they do for us?

A Constraint limits the values which are allowed in a column. The SQL database manager will use constraints to validate data. There are several types of constraint.

Phil Factor thinks that not enforcing Referential Integrity is usually bad (and I agree).

Referential Integrity and the FOREIGN KEY REFERENCES Constraint

The FOREIGN KEY REFERENCES constraint on a column makes it a Foreign Key to another table. The Foreign Key must be present as a Primary Key in the referenced table. This is called Referential Integrity.

In the illustration, it is not possible for the Order table to contain a CustomerID which does not exist in the table Customer.

Enforcing Referential Integrity with REFERENCES
Enforcing Referential Integrity with REFERENCES

This is very powerful. The constraint makes the database manager check every change. Statements which would violate the Foreign Key constraint are rejected.

Performing the validation costs effort.

Phil Factor points out an additional benefit. The database manager may be able to use the Foreign Keys to improve performance of some queries.

Why wouldn’t you use Referential Integrity?

The arguments most frequently used for not implementing referential integrity are:

  • Performance: I have already mentioned the “cost” of checking the constraints. This argument:
    • Prejudice against logic in the database
    • A desire to minimise the “load” on the database manager.
  • Dirty Data: An “upstream” system may provide data which violates the constraint. Accepting this argument may mean importing faulty data, and the associated problems into your system!

“Staging tables” may be a better solution to this problem.

Both of these arguments are valid in some circumstances. There are times alternatives are better. Ask the following questions:

  • How are you going to perform the validation?
  • Which system components are going to perform the validation?
  • Do you expect the alternative solution to perform better?
  • Will the alternative solution be better in some way?

Not having answers to these questions is not really acceptable. Try and make a rational decision, based on numbers.

How Referential Integrity and Requirements interact

The Conceptual Data Model identifies business entities and relationships. Those relationships define the referential integrity requirements.

Not using referential integrity implies that:

  • The system is going to allow invalid data, or
  • The system is going to validate the data in some other way.

Summary

Foreign Key Constraints exclude some invalid data from the system. Orphaned records (eg non-existent Customers) are impossible.

Exceptions to this rule require a rational justification.

Where next?

In the next article I will look at “Check Constraints” which are a different way of ensuring valid data.

SQL Hierarchies – SQL Smells

SQL Hierarchy - Hierarchies are a problem in SQL - An SQL smell
SQL Hierarchy – Hierarchies are a problem in SQL – An SQL smell

Phil Factor describes “Storing the hierarchy structure in the same table as the entities that make up the hierarchy”, and hierarchies as an SQL Smell. It is one of the longer titles in his article!

If you are not familiar with this construction, it is when a table refers back to itself using a “one-to-many” relationship.

Hierarchies are everywhere in the real world: product categories, nested geographic areas and organisation structures are all reasons we use hierarchies. Hierarchies are essential in order to model real business requirements, but they are difficult to get right. They are difficult to explain to business people and they can be difficult to specify properly to developers. When you decide you need them, then you should look at them closely.

I go a stage further than Phil Factor and say that all requirements for hierarchies should be reviewed, because they can be tricky.

How does a single table represent a hierarchy?

Product Hierarchy as a Single SQL table
Product Hierarchy as a Single SQL table

The figure shows a single table (called “Product_Category”). Each row can “point at” its parent using a Foreign Key in the “ParentCategoryId” column. In the example: Bikes, Components, Clothing and Accessories are all top-level categories. Mountain Bikes, Road Bikes and Touring Bikes are all sub-categories of Bikes. You can see how the row for Mountain Bikes “points at” Bikes.

This is the construction Phil Factor regards as an “SQL Smell” in his article. He says:

  • This approach “mixes relationships and values” (a philosophical objection), and
  • He states that the “closure table” pattern is more suitable for modelling real-life hierarchies.

I agree with Phil Factor on both counts. I’m not entirely against using the single table hierarchy, because it can be very simple and effective, but we need to recognise its limitations. People use the single table hierarchy because they are seduced by its apparent elegance and because they are not aware of any alternatives.

How the “closure table” represents a hierarchy in two tables

Two ways of modelling a hierarchy in SQL tables - single self-referencing table and closure table
Two ways of modelling a hierarchy in SQL tables

A two table “closure table” design is my (and Phil Factor’s) preferred way of storing hierarchies. In this pattern the information about the categories is held in the Category table and the information about the relationships between categories is held as foreign keys in the Product_Category_Closure table.

I like the “closure table” pattern because it is extremely flexible. There is an excellent technical description of how to use it here.

I am still cautious about the “closure table”, because we need to make sure we understand the requirements for the hierarchy we are designing.

Hierarchies as a Requirements Smell for Analysts

Phil Factor identifies the “Single Table Hierarchy” as an SQL Smell. I would go further and identify Hierarchies in general as a Requirements Smell. We can spot hierarchies at the earliest stages of creating the Conceptual Model of the database.

The issue is not “having Hierarchies” in your model. The issue is that both the “Single Table” and “Closure Table” patterns may seduce us into thinking that we have understood what the Business wants, or what the System needs to do, because we have added a table or two into our model.

Hierarchies are an area where the model of the data structure we use in the system can have a real impact (for good and bad) on what the system is capable of.

  • It is not really reasonable to expect business people to understand the nuances of choosing one Conceptual Model over another.
  • Neither is it right to expect Developers or Database designers to decide the importance of things like sequencing of categories, or rules about “depth”.
  • This is especially a problem if the Analyst has created a Model which contains a single table linked to itself and used that as a short-hand for “we need some sort of hierarchy here”, but has not investigated it or specified what it is.

Consequently, there is a danger here that we can either get into “analysis paralysis”, investigating hierarchies, on the one hand, or creating a database with an over-simplified or over complex solution for the hierarchy on the other.

How an analyst should approach hierarchies

In order to manage the risks of “analysis paralysis” or an inappropriate design, I suggest the following approach:

  • Recognise that the Business People may not fully understand the consequences of what they are agreeing to.
  • Make sure you illustrate the definition of the hierarchy with realistic examples. It won’t be wasted effort. The examples will be good for reflecting back the Requirements to the Business and will be useful for explaining the Requirements to whoever is designing the database. The examples will also be useful as the basis for test data.
  • The Business may review their requirements after they have seen the hierarchy implementation. That makes hierarchies a likely candidate for iterative development whether we want it or not!

Summary

Hierarchies are normal and essential Business Requirements. The “single table hierarchy” pattern may over-simplify Requirements, and even the “Closure Table” pattern may seduce us into specifying a design which we do not fully understand.

Hierarchies are a Requirements Smell. If the business needs hierarchies we should not try to eliminate them. Hierarchies deserve particular attention. They should be recognised as a potential risk in the project plan.

Where next?

“Hierarchies” are a problem with understanding real requirements and then converting a Conceptual Model into a Logical Model. They are an unavoidable Requirements Smell.

In the next article I’m going to look deeper than usual into table definitions. I’m going to consider the SQL Smells and Requirements Smells around – “SQL Constraints – for Referential Integrity and for Column Values”.

Inappropriate data-types – SQL Smells

Inappropriate Data-types cause SQL Smells!
Inappropriate SQL Data-types cause SQL Smells!

People choose inappropriate data-types. This isn’t surprising. There are lots of SQL data-types, so people make inappropriate choices. Phil Factor names “Using inappropriate data-types” as a smell in his article on SQL Smells.

I’m going to concentrate on dates and numbers in this post. I will explain why people choose inappropriate data-types. I will also describe an approach which will encourage you to choose the right ones.

This will be a superficial treatment. I’m going to look at the problem from a high level. Dates and numbers can suffer from detailed technical problems as well.

Why do people choose inappropriate data-types?

Confusion of Storage, Interchange and Presentation forms of data causes selection of inappropriate data-types
SQL: Storage, Interchange and Presentation forms of data

Phil Factor identifies the main reason for this problem as:

“Confusing how data will be presented with how it will be stored”.

I agree. Here are some reasons Analysts choose inappropriate data-types:

  • We approach problems from the outside and take the users’ point of view. We should consider presentation. Inside the database, data should be stored in an appropriate form.
  • The same argument applies for interfaces and interchange formats. Interface requirements should not determine the way data is stored internally. Interfaces are still important. Where possible, standard interchange formats should be used.
  • Spreadsheets have made us lazy. You don’t have to think about the “data-type” when you key something into a cell. Format and validation are often added afterwards.
  • There are “folk memories” about problems with data in old file-based systems. These systems did not have the rich range of data-types of modern databases and languages.

Consequences of using inappropriate data-types

Inappropriate data types can have serious consequences for a system we are building. Some of these problems are not obvious. Many of these problems apply to all systems. Some of these problems become more important with larger databases.

  • Having the wrong format makes validation harder. It prevents the database engine from checking the content and increases the risk of “garbage data” getting into the system.
  • The possible presence of garbage data makes error handling throughout the system harder.
  • Storing data in “display format” imbeds that format deep inside the system.
  • “Dates” are associated with useful functions which simplify program design.
  • Inappropriate data-types can change how data is sorted. This influences how indexes work and cause performance issues.
  • The “correct” data-types are usually very space efficient. Using alternatives can waste space in the database for no benefit.

Let’s look at some specific examples:

Inappropriate data-types for Numbers, especially currency

SQL: Storing numbers as character strings - inappropriate data-types
SQL: Storing numbers as character strings

It is possible to present numbers as strings, even including the decimal and thousands separators and any related currency symbols.

Interchange files can contain numbers as text, because it is convenient.

Numbers stored as strings are harder to validate.

Numbers stored as strings are sorted differently to numbers stored as numbers. If you doubt me, then try the experiment of illustrated in the Figure: “Number versus Character sorting” in your favourite spreadsheet.

SQL: Number versus Character sorting. Consequences of inappropriate data-types
SQL: Number versus Character sorting

Inappropriate data-types for Dates

"<yoastmark

Some early databases did not handle dates very well. This encouraged designers to do-it-themselves with varying degrees of success.

It is possible to represent a date as an integer. Such a “date” will sort as you expect, but needs its own validation and will not help you with date arithmetic.

It is also possible (and unfortunately common) to store dates in character fields. In most cases this is simply “an accident waiting to happen”!

All these do-it-yourself options are vulnerable to the problem that Americans tend to specify dates “mm-dd-yy” and Europeans (including the British) tend to specify dates “dd-mm-yy”. There is nothing we as analysts can do about this except to make sure that the test data for any system always includes a date with “13th of the Month”!

Benefits of using the appropriate data-types

The benefits of using the appropriate data-types far outweigh any perceived costs. Most of the “cost” is simply being aware that there are options and then not choosing the inappropriate data-types!

Using the appropriate data-types will:

  • Help protect you from “garbage data” (The database will reject an incorrect leap year 29th of February!)
  • Sort as you (and the business) expect without the need to work out the details.
  • Allow you to specify the presentation separately from the storage. Many languages and presentation frameworks have these facilities built in.
  • Take up less storage space.
  • Make your system perform better!

How to prevent appropriate data-types

Choosing the Appropriate Data-type - Problem Prevention. Preventing inappropriate data-types
Choosing the Appropriate Data-type – Problem Prevention

People choose inappropriate data-types in the transition from the “Conceptual Model” to the “Logical Model” (or possibly the “Physical Model”). We have selected the entities and attributes the system needs, but we have chosen inappropriate data-types.

The solution is to separate different aspects of the data and the decisions we need to make in our minds.

Here is the approach I recommend:

In the Conceptual Model:

  • Decide what data you need (the “attribute”) and decide what kind of data it is. Do this from a “non-computer” point of view.
  • If it is a number, say what it counts or measures and what the units are.
  • Treat “money” as a unit.
  • For dates and times, label them loosely as “date”, “time” or “date-time”.
  • Record any “limits”. The database designer may use them in detailed design.
  • Say how the users of the system will expect to see it presented. You will use this information in the user-interface design.

In the Logical Model:

  • Decide what kind of “bucket” the database should put it into. A database professional may help you with this.
  • If it is a number, and a precise value, say it is an Integer (of some kind). For decimals, say how many decimal places you need.
  • Look hard at dates and times. Do you mean “date” or “time of day”? Do you need an “elapsed time” or a “point in time”?

In the Physical Model:

  • Decide exactly what SQL Data-type you are going to use. Many of the basic data-types have alternatives. There are several types of “Integer” and quite a lot of “Date and Time” types.
  • This is a good time to talk to a database professional.

Summary

There are two main reasons for choosing inappropriate data-types in SQL:

  • Concentrating too much on how data will be presented, rather than how it will be stored
  • Making decisions about the Physical Model prematurely

Using inappropriate data-types can have wide-ranging harmful effects on your database and system.

Avoid the problems by following a simple process:

  1. Concentrate on what data the system needs in the Conceptual Model.
  2. Outline how that data should be stored in the Logical Model.
  3. Confirm the exact SQL data-type in the Physical Model.

This does not have to be difficult or time consuming. It fits perfectly well with “Agile” development.

Where next?

“Inappropriate data-types” was a problem with converting a Conceptual Model into a Logical Model. In the next article I’m going to look at the SQL Smells and Requirements Smells around – “Using Hierarchies”.

Packing lists into SQL columns – SQL Smells

Packing Lists into SQL Columns creates an SQL Smell
Packing Lists into SQL Columns creates an SQL Smell

Some SQL data types are amazingly flexible. As a consequence people are tempted to put all kinds of data into character columns. In his article on SQL Smells Phil Factor identifies packing lists or complex data into a column as one of the “smells”. To be frank, it stinks! One row should contain one value for each column. That value should mean a single thing. Doing anything else is inviting problems.

Let’s look at how to recognise this particular “smell”, where it comes from, the consequences of allowing designs containing it and how to remove it. I’ll also touch on the limited circumstances when it is acceptable.

Recognising “packing lists into a column”

Examples of lists packed into SQL Columns
Examples of lists packed into SQL Columns

If you are an analyst or designer, working with the Conceptual Design or Requirements for the database then you will know when you are tempted to do this. My advice is – Don’t do it! The explanation will come later.
On the other hand, this smell can be hard to recognise if it actually gets into the database design. There will be evidence in three places:

  • There may be signs of “lists” in the database design. The names of affected columns may be plural, or something like “List_of_…”. The column is likely to be defined as a character type.
  • There will be evidence in the data. This is the easiest place to find the evidence. There will usually be a separator character between the different elements of the list, like “1,2,3,4”. Beware! Fixed length character columns, divided into fields, mimicking an ancient punched card are not entirely unknown.
  • The code will provide evidence. You will know it when you see it. The code will parse the offending column into separate values based on either a separator value or column positions.

Limitations of the packing approach

This approach is not using a relational database as intended. This will impose limitations on your system.

  • You will not be able to search on the individual fields without unpacking them.
  • You won’t be able to update the fields without unpacking them and then re-packing them.
  • Changes to the implied record structure will mean fundamental changes to the database and the associated code.
  • All the packing and unpacking will cause poor performance.

Excuses for packing a list into a column

There are two reasons you may be tempted to pack a list in this way:

  • You think it will somehow be “more efficient”. Take Phil Factor’s word for it. It won’t!
  • Another system expects something in this form. In this case you would be better to “do things properly” and do the conversion close to the interface with the other system. That way you limit the effect the other system is having on you.

The only acceptable excuse is that the data in the column is going to be treated as a black box. All your system is doing is storing it.

How to avoid packing a list into a column

There is one main strategy for avoiding packing a list (or other complex data) in a column. You should aim to understand the list or data you are packing into the column. Consider breaking the complex data out into a new entity. Apply the techniques of data modelling or normalization.

Summary

A column containing complex data indicates problem with the Conceptual Model of the database. You should review the data model and apply the rules of normalization.

Where next?

Having dealt with a problem poor data modelling, in the next article I’m going to look at a general problem of data design and an associated SQL Smell – “Using inappropriate data types”.

SQL Naming Conventions prevent SQL Smells

SQL Naming Conventions prevent bad SQL Smells

SQL Naming Conventions prevent bad SQL Smells

Anything written about Information Technology has to mention naming conventions. Phil Factor’s article on SQL Smells describes several smells which can be caused by poor naming of objects in the database. In this article, I am going to concentrate on naming tables and columns.

What makes a good naming convention?

 

I don’t think I can do better than quote Phil Factor in his original article:

“Identifiers should help to make SQL readable as if it were English.”

By “Identifiers” Phil means the names of the objects. The name of the object is to distinguish it from all the other things in the database. It does not need to fully describe the object. It is good if it tells people what the object contains, but it does not have to describe it in detail. There are better ways to do that.

By the way, SQL was originally meant to be called “Structured English Query Language” but the name was altered because of a trademark clash.

Short, meaningful names are good. Nobody will thank you for meaningless names like “T1231237” or “TEMP000”. I’ve actually seen both of those! Similarly, nobody who has to type it in is going to like really long names.

Any standards, naming conventions, or guidelines should help you to choose names which are useful where you are working. I’m not going to tell you what to do, but I am going to suggest some things to avoid, or at least to watch out for.

Maximum size in characters of Table and Column names in SQL Server, Oracle and MySQL
Maximum size in characters of Table and Column names in SQL Server, Oracle and MySQL

Naming things well is an art. Naming linking tables is especially hard. It is worth spending a little (but not too much) time on naming things. The names you choose will be referenced throughout your system and will be with with you for a long time.

Over the years, the maximum size permitted for table names has increased. That has made life easier. Really short table names practically demanded structured, coded names which were a pain. On the other hand, please don’t get carried away with long names.

Naming Conventions by exception

Rather than provide detailed guidance on a naming convention, other than the “Goldilocks – Meaningful, not too short, not too long, just right!”, I’m going to give you a list of naming SQL Smells which should make your nostrils twitch:

  • Avoid using reserved words in names: I did it inadvertently once by calling a column “Desc” (for “Description”) which clashed with DESC for “descending” in SQL. It caused all sorts of trouble and confusion.
  • Avoid special characters (including spaces) in names: This is allowed if you enclose the name in square brackets ([Table$name]), but this really is looking for trouble and making work. It is far better to keep things simple. In the same spirit, don’t use square brackets where they are not necessary ([Table_Name]). It’s ugly and harder to read.
  • Be suspicious of numbers in object names: Why would a table-name need to contain a number? There are occasional cases where a column name might contain a number. By convention “Address_Line_1” etc. is fairly common. But they are rather rare. Numbers in object names should make you suspect the data model.
  • Avoid system-generated object names: SQL Server (and other database managers) will provide default names for some objects, like indexes and constraints. The names it uses are ugly and sometimes give little clue what the object is doing.

Summary

When you are designing your own database, follow the local conventions and concentrate on making the names readable and easy to use.

Where next?

Having dealt with the issue of naming, in the next article I’m going to look at a specific SQL Smell – “Packing lists into a column”.